- Current projects:
- [Interfaces, surfaces, transfaces]: We propose the concept of « transface » to unify surface-bound and surface-less interfaces. See: Around the idea of transface [CN.10].
- [Systemic design for strong sustainability]: I'm co-advising Laetitia Bornes on design processes in systems engineering to address strong sustainability. She currently explores quasi-quantitative modeling to equip interaction designers for using systemic approaches that make it possible to ask sustainability questions at sufficient spatial and temporal scales and anticipate systemic effects such as rebound effects and reinforcement loops [CI.19].
- [SPO]: I'm co-advising Maxime Bardou on his PhD that reflects on collaboration and mutual awareness issues in the context of the single pilot operation (SPO) concept [CN.9, CI.18, CN.11].
[Sustainability in human-centered aeronautics]: Given the challenge of global climate change for technology and aeronautics, I have started to reflect on how to design sustainable air transportation solutions through various approaches. My approach builds on systemic design and philosophy to reflect on human/technology relationships. I recently gave a keynote at the IHM 2023 french conference on this approach [TR.11].
In addition to energy and materials related issues (e.g. [W.9]), I have explored concepts such as the concept of long and slow journeys using the winds with the Aerocities project with students. In this project, they reflected on the future of air transportation in the context of global climate change. A first project explored how to use the resources available in the atmosphere, namely winds, to develop a sustainable way to keep moving in the sky: the students thus reflected on the idea of aerocities, which are aircraft designed for long inhabited travels. In other projects, students explored design fictions for the future of air transport, designed a collaborative card game to "save" air transport, or studied fundamental needs for air transport. Other approaches includes exploring sustainable airports or airships, or transport intermodality for mobility.
I also believe that the role of HMI in ecology, in addition to the eco-design and persuasion approaches, is to assume its systemic know-how to address a more global dimension of design. I am currently involved in several initiatives in this direction.
- Previous projects at ENAC:
- [AIRTIUS]: in this project, we explore the physical design space for interactive instruments in the cockpit of the future. Touch technologies are going to replace current electronic displays for flying and navigating instruments. For safety and performance reasons, interactive instruments should however maximize the perception, action and collaboration spaces of the pilots, and the literature highlights the limits of touch interaction as for these aspects. Our objective is thus to explore how the physicality of interactive technologies could address this issue. The project is funded by ANR. Through a set of elicited requirements for interactive instruments in the cockpit, we have started to explore the physical design space based on tactile, haptic, tangible, gesture-based, organic and smart material interaction. We come up with a multi-dimensional space, structured along shape, perception and programability [CI.12]. Exploring the physical design space of the interactive cockpit is grounded on observing and understanding pilots activity. In particular, we aimed at characterizing the status of sensation and perception for pilots [CI.13]. This work has also been presented in a seminar dedicated to Merleau-Ponty and the humanities. A first prototype has been developed, GazeForm, that explores contextual shape changes according to the gaze [CI.14]. Another tangible concept, called Multi-Plié and illustrated through two prototypes, explores the concept of folding a surface to enhance efficiency, safety and collaboration in the cockpit [CI.15].
- [Le geste matériel]: in this project, we explore the continuity between physical and digital gestures, using insights from philosophy of technics. In this project, I'm co-advising a PhD student, Valentin Becquet, on this subject with Xavier Guchet from the University of Technology of Compiegne, where we gesture-based interaction for pilots is addressed through the investigation of anthropological aspects, and that also builds on recent perspectives drawn from the philosophy of technology. On this matter, Xavier Guchet gave a talk at ENAC on philosophical accounts of the technical gesture (video). This worked focuses on the impact of touch-based interaction on mutual awareness among pilots and how the graphical representation of the effects of gesture supports a safer perception by the other pilot [CI.16].
[STAMP] (2013-2014): in this project, we work on visualization tools for the cockpit to enhance thunderstorm real-time detection by the pilots, based on satellite data.
Currently, cockpits are equiped with a radar based visualization that does not provide a sufficient and global view in case of complex and highly evolutive thunderstorm systems, as can happen in very active area such as the intertropical convergence zone.
During a user study, we identified several needs related to this visualization: a) vertical views help he pilots to identify very high cumolonimbus (up to 15-18 km high), and b) predicted cells provide them with a way to anticipate alternative routes. The visualization is provided on the dual 2D horizontal/vertical view that is already used on the flight deck. In lieu of the standard 2D vertical view, the tool uses a 3D view that facilitates tracking of cells sliding along time slots and altitudes. The user navigates along headings thanks to a rotary-knob button [CI.11] (video).
- [Medusa] (2012-2013): The goal of the project is to enable advanced interactions modelling and rapid GUI prototyping based on model transformation, and to build a prototyping platform based on this approach. The target application is an airborne maritime surveillance system. During this project, I have participated to the activity analysis through contextual interviews, and to the design of a drawing tool to support audio communication for the crew through participatory workshops and scenario-based design. In the context of this design process, I have analyzed the needs of interaction designers. In this study, based on ethnographic analyses and participatory workshops, I reflected on how models may capture relevant data for design, and on how to use models as design rationales [CI.10].
- [Strip'TIC] (2011-2012) : Strip'TIC (Stripping Tangible Interface for Controllers) is a research collaboration between DSNA/DTI (French Civil Aviation) and ENAC. This innovative prototype mixes the best of two technologies: paper and electronic strips. Based on upcoming technologies (digital pen, augmented reality, multitouch), the environment that is offered to the controllers through this system is both coherent, robust and easy to use [CI.7, RI.4]. During this project, I have participated to the analysis of the air traffic controllers activity and to the design of the prototype. Based on this work, I have also contributed to the reflection on tangible interaction models, by putting into perspective distributed cognition processes such as externalization and the use of interactive paper strips on the stripboard [CI.8]. I keep participating to the project through Master students project advising, where we explore the use of gestures to complement interaction with paper and the multi-touch board.
- [aeronautical maintenance] (2011-2013) : This work, in collaboration with operational aeronautic maintenance centers at ENAC, consists, through student projects, in exploring digital pen and interactive board technologies to support aeronautical job card maintenance.
- [I-star] (2009-2011) : The goal of this project is to design and build a virtual machine dedicated to interactive software. This virtual machine will allow to combine interactive components built in different programing languages, so as to favour reuse and innovation. It will also allow the distributed execution of interactive software, as much for accomodating Web architectures as for building multi-surface applications. During this project, I have focused on analyzing the needs of interactive software programers using toolkits [CI.6], and I have participated to the programing of some components of the framework.
- Projects before ENAC:
[Reactivity] (INRIA-Microsoft Research) (2008-2010) :
In the ReActivity project, we observed scientific researchers practices when they reflect on their past and current work. Our goal was to analyze relevant levels for logging activity traces, including physical and mixed paper/digital ones. During this project, I was able to perform a longitudinal study with a molecular biology researcher using an hybrid laboratory notebook, composed of a blogging tool and a Livescribe paper notebook [R.3]. Thanks to this study, I have developed graphenda, that uses an Anoto pen to let a biologist explore a scientific datasheet [CN.5].
[Paperoles] (IRCAM-INRIA) (2005-2009):
In this project we analyzed the use of paper by contemporary music composers. We interviewed them to understand their practice, in collaboration with the Musical representations and the Analysis of musical practices teams at IRCAM [CN.2][W.8]. Following to this study, a tool (Musink) could be developed to recognize handwritten musical instructions from Anoto paper, and input them to OpenMusic, a visual tool for composers [CI.5].
[Micromegas] (INRIA ACI Masses de Données) : multi-scale approaches to navigate into familiar voluminous data
In this project, we reflected on how to reflectively explore activity data, as familiar data. Namely, we focused on how to let the end-user better use command histories and Web visitation data [CI.4][W.6].
[Mobyle] (Institut Pasteur-RPBS) (2004-2008)
The Mobyle software tool [RI.2][W.5], following Pise [RI.1], seeked to provide biologists around the world with a comprehensive set of free tools running under Unix through an integrated Web interface. Scientific software tools are indeed highly diverse, and Unix Unix syntax puts the learning threshold quite high for the major part of biologists. Users' needs were analyzed through an ethnographic and participatory approach [W.4]. We put the focus on making data handling, reuse and formatting easier for the end-user, together with relevant features to manage results and program combination in ad-hoc workflows. With MobyleNet, biologists are able to run and combine programs available within a set of remote sites [W.7].
[Bioworkflow] (Institut Pasteur-RNG) (2007-2008) :
The objective of this project [CN.4] was to enable members of the ReNaBi network (REseau NAtional to evaluate the most suited technical solutions for bioinformatics platforms. Best techniques had to support the design and running of distributed workflows. During this project, we evaluated a distributed solution for the Mobyle project [W.7] (see Mobyle).
[EUD-Net] (Institut Pasteur)
This network of excellence european project seeked to establish a research agenda on End-User Programing. During this project, I build on my PhD work where I had developed biok, a prototype of a programmable application for biologists, and where I had worked on a process paradigm: participatory programing [CI.3], and on algorithmic flexibility [W.2]. My participation resulted in a chapter in a book on End-User Development [CH.1].
- [Reactivity] (INRIA-Microsoft Research) (2008-2010) :